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1844: Governor Marmaduke's Proposal

1847: The Legislature Acts

1861-1865: Civil War Years

1890-1907: Struggle for Control

1945: The End of Patronage

1970 To The Present: De-institutionalization

1890-1907: Struggle for Control

Turn of the century debates between allopathic and homeopathic schools of treatment, coupled with patronage contests, sparked the rise and fall of several hospital administrations. In 1901, homeopath superintendent W. L. Ray happily reported to the legislature that the use of common hypnotics, including morphine, "is now unknown in this institution." He also eliminated over-reliance on purgatives and laxatives. His soothing program of rest, recreation, and work replaced allopathic reliance on restraint and drugs. In early 1902, though, Governor Alexander Dockery replaced Ray and his assistant physicians with allopathic staff.

Meeting of the Asylum Board and Officials, c 1914.
Meeting of the Asylum Board and Officials, c 1914.
Missouri State Archives

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Online Exhibit Created 2003
Missouri State ArchivesOffice of the Secretary of State, Missouri