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1840: A Revolution in Treatment

1851: A Place for a Cure

1870: Long Term Care

1900: Emerging Treatments

1900-1960: Tuberculosis

1956: Spiritual Health

1900-1980: Carnivals & Amusements

1900-1960: Life on the Ward

1960-1980: Life on the Wards

1930-1950: New Treatments

1950 to the Present: Drug Therapy

1947: Occupational Therapy

1930-1966: Surgical Treatment

1988: Social Learning Program

1957: Youth Program

1980: Outpatient Treatment

The Hopeful Future

1840: A Revolution in Treatment

Frenchman Philippe Pinel argued in the late 18th century that confining the mentally ill to jails, pens, cellars and garrets, restraining them in chains, straight jackets and chairs, feeding them bread and water, and hiring attendants based on their strength and not their compassion or medical training, was unacceptable. Sparking a revolution in the treatment of the mentally ill, Pinel's ideas were discussed by Missouri legislators in 1845. Nevertheless, the state continued to use the "letting out" system whereby counties placed their mentally ill in the care of the lowest bidder. In 1849, the chairman of the House Committee on the Lunatic Asylum described this practice as one virtually guaranteed to foster coercion and to provide patients the same type of care given to wild animals.

"The Interior of Bedlam," by William Hogarth, 1763.
"The Interior of Bedlam," from A Rake's Progress by William Hogarth, 1763.
McCormick Library, Northwestern University

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Online Exhibit Created 2003
Missouri State ArchivesOffice of the Secretary of State, Missouri