Discovery Kits Bibliography

Discovering Lewis and Clark: The Corps of Discovery in Missouri.

The Corps of Discovery in Missouri focuses on some of the reasons why Missouri is important to the voyage of Lewis and Clark. Hands on items include a model keelboat, a stuffed dog representing Seaman who accompanied the expedition, a telescope in the style that Lewis and Clark themselves would have used and a trusty compass among other items that will have your patrons talking and enjoying the program.

Contents

Video: Lewis and Clark: The Corps of Discovery in Missouri.
This 30 minute video is a great introduction to the expedition for those who are unfamiliar with the story. From the Missouri Department of Conservation.

CD: Fiddle Tunes of the Lewis and Clark Era by the New Columbia Fiddlers.
This album has been included to help set the mood of your program. There is interesting information provided on the laminated sheet about the Missourian who produced the recording and about music on the Lewis and Clark expedition, which you may want to present as an introduction to the CD. You can use it as background music, or you can use the notes provided in the CD booklet to discuss the selections.

Sing-Along Lyrics.
Two of the songs on the Fiddle Tunes of the Lewis and Clark Era album are very familiar. Lyrics to these tunes have been provided, so you can conduct a group sing-along. There is no consensus on the original words to these songs, so they have been paraphrased from various sources to fit the music.

  • "Yankee Doodle" is track 1.
  • "Pop! Goes the Weasel" is track 22.

Recipes from The Food Journal of Lewis and Clark by Mary Gunderson.
Serving food is a great way to make your program fun and give it a taste of authenticity! We have included recipes to four simple dishes which the Corps of Discovery might have eaten. Culinary historian Mary Gunderson has scoured the captains' journals for food references and researched nineteenth century cooking to create these authentic recipes:

  • Corn Pone
  • Provisions Pork Stew
  • Corn, Sunflower, and Beans
  • Berry Pudding

Tactile Map: Lewis and Clark 's Western Exploration.
This map illustrates the expedition's route across North America, using tactile lines and symbols in conjunction with print. The legend at the right explains the tactile marks in braille and large print. Because of space constraints, the locations are labeled only in print. We suggest using the " Timeline of the Expedition " as you discuss the map.

Timeline of the Expedition.
The timeline can be used in your discussion of the tactile map. It is also a helpful resource to refer back to when questions arise during your programs.

Prints of Lewis, Clark, Sacagawea, York, and Recruited Private by Michael Haynes.
These prints are a historically accurate depiction of what the principal characters in the Corps of Discovery looked like. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were military officers, and dressed as such at the beginning of their journey and for Indian councils. However, after their first winter at the Mandan villages, the captains and the entire crew adopted the native mode of clothing-moccasins and garments made of elk hide or buffalo skin. Information about each character is printed on the back of the card. Pass the prints around so everyone can take a good look.

Lewis's Packing List.
Twenty copies of this list have been provided so it can be used as a handout. Skim over the items and read aloud any you find amusing or interesting. There are questions for discussion at the bottom.

Sample Journal Pages.
We purchased digital images of pages from the original Lewis and Clark journals, to give an idea of what their raw journals and sketches actually looked like. We used modern technology to increase the contrast of the writing, because some was quite faded with age, and some pages have been enlarged, especially the Manitou drawing. Notice the captains' irregular spelling and the way they made use of the entire page to keep the papers from becoming too bulky. The pages show:

  • two drawings of the keelboat.
  • a map of Camp Dubois, where the crew spent the winter before departing in the spring of 1804; note the faintly visible lettering which bled through when the captains wrote on the back of the page.
  • a sketch of a "Manitou" from Native American cliff-paintings. The Manitou is a half-deer, half-man creature the explorers called a "devil;" the sketch also shows a buffalo and a Native American.

Air Freshener of Missouri River Scent.
This element was chosen because it engages the sense of smell. The sachet is intended to replicate the scent of the Missouri River as it would have smelled 200 years ago to Lewis and Clark. Any participant who is familiar with the modern day smell of the Missouri may be dubious about the hypothetical scent! Explain that the air freshener is an educated guess as to what the river might have smelled like before industrial pollution, barge traffic, and septic systems.

Fun Factoids.
These are interesting facts to mention if you have extra time somewhere in your program, for example while the participants are passing around the tactile objects, or while serving and eating the food.

Tactile Items.
A wide variety of objects have been chosen to illustrate aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. They are intended to be passed around, handled, and discussed. Suggestion: hold each item up and ask your participants what it is and what it was used for; pass the object around so everyone can feel it; meanwhile, look at the description in this guide and read aloud anything your group does not volunteer. Objects include:

  • Model Keelboat. This is a scale model of the keelboat used by the Corps of Discovery; the scale is 1' = ½''. The original was 55' long, 8' wide, and able to haul 12 tons of cargo. After spending their first winter with the Mandans, Louis and Clark sent the keelboat back to Saint Louis under the command of Corporal Warfington. The keelboat was loaded with precious cargo the captains did not want to risk losing over the course of their remaining journey: their journals of the first year; plant, animal, and mineral specimens; and scientific descriptions of the landscape and nature.
  • Stuffed Seaman. Lewis was accompanied all the way to the Pacific and back by Seaman, a large Newfoundland dog. Lewis paid twenty dollars to purchase him, a tidy price equal to half his monthly salary. But Seaman was well worth it: he aided the hunters by bringing in wounded game; he warned the explorers of bears in their vicinity, especially important since Lewis habitually took long walks accompanied only by his dog; and one night a wild bull charged through the camp and would have trampled the captains' tent, but Seaman scared the bull away.
  • Magnifying Glass. This small tool was very useful to Lewis. When he had time, often while in winter camp, Lewis made lengthy descriptions of plants and animals unknown to science. Undoubtedly, Lewis used a magnifying glass to scrutinize his specimens in detail, examining the veins on a leaf, the feathers on a bird, or the rings in wood grain. Magnifying glasses also had a separate function: in a pinch, the glass could be used to focus sunlight, which could ignite dry kindling and create fire; the captains sometimes referred to these tools as "burning glasses."
  • Pocket Telescope. This small spyglass actually works! It is easiest to focus if you look out over a distance rather than a close range. The explorers used it for scouting rivers or paths and keeping watch for natives and wildlife.
  • Flint and Steel. This small stone is composed of flint, a mineral which produces sparks when it hits a hard surface, usually steel. The explorers commonly used flint and steel to start their campfires.
  • Compass. This is a modern replica of a compass Lewis and Clark might have taken on the expedition. It is functional, but while in storage, the needle is locked in place to preserve its magnetism. To unlock the needle, slide over the peg on the side of the cylinder. Wait for the needle to settle in one direction, then turn the compass until the needle points to north, and you will be facing magnetic north (true north is a few degrees different from magnetic north). Please remember to lock the needle into place before putting the compass away.
  • Leather Journal. This leather book looks approximately as the captains' journals looked. The original journals had red leather covers instead of beige. The journalists would wrap them in several layers of oilcloth in addition to the leather, in an effort to keep out moisture; damp paper and leather will rot, potentially destroying all their efforts. They would air out the journals every chance they got, when the weather was dry and they were in camp. Lewis and Clark recorded many things in their journals: the weather; their daily progress; medical and discipline information about the crew; descriptions of the terrain, flora, and fauna; astronomical observations made with the sextant; ethnography and vocabularies of Native Americans; and a wide variety of other information.
  • Wood Pen. The journalists used pens similar to this for writing. Some of the handles were made of metal, some were likely made of wood. The captains probably brought a large supply of nibs, which are the tips you dip in ink, so they could construct new pens out of sticks.
  • Powdered Ink. Instead of bringing a huge supply of bottled ink, which would be vulnerable to damage and loss, Lewis cleverly purchased powdered ink. They would mix ink powder with a little water as they went along, virtually eliminating the chance of losing the whole supply in an accident.

Discovering Lewis and Clark: The Corps of Discovery in the West.

The Corps of Discovery in the West focuses on the entire expedition from Saint Louis to the Pacific Ocean. Hands on items include a model dugout canoe, a stuffed prairie dog and buffalo, a fifteen star flag, and a tactile map showing the route that Lewis and Clark took on their famous journey. There are many other items to spark conversation and even sing a song. The kit comes with everything you could need in order to make a great program for your patrons.

Contents

Slideshow: Voyage of Rediscovery: Tracing the Route of Lewis and Clark.
This slideshow was created by a journalist who traveled the route of the Corps of Discovery. The pictures were taken just a few years ago, so they give an accurate view of how the trail looks today. It is easy to see how some aspects have changed, but at the same time, many features seem untouched by the passage of time. This slideshow and the accompanying narration are repeated on videotape for those who do not have a slide projector; however, the slide format is best because the images are larger and steadier than still images on a television. If you do not have a slide-projector, you may want to check with your local public library. The slides are very conducive to discussion; as you watch the show, ask your group questions to encourage participation. Some examples: "Has anyone ever stepped on a prickly pear cactus?" or "How many people have taken a canoe trip? Was it just one day, or did you camp and canoe for a few days?" Photography by John Krist.

CD: Narration to Voyage of Rediscovery: Tracing the Route of Lewis and Clark.
This CD contains the narration that accompanies the slideshow. Once your slide projector is set up and the first slide is visible, press play on the CD player. Listen for the pause between each CD track to advance the slides; there is also a printed copy of the narration in the back of this manual if you would like to follow along. The narration is already included on the videotape, so there is no need to play this CD if you are using the video version. Narrated by Matthew Brimer.

Video: Voyage of Rediscovery.
This video is the same as the slideshow and narration; the video version has been included for facilities that do not have access to a slide projector. Photography by John Krist. Narrated by Matthew Brimer. Conversion to VHS by R & R Productions.

CD: "Most Perfect Harmony" Lewis and Clark: A Musical Journey by the Discovery String Band.
This CD was recorded by five Missouri musicians. It contains some original songs about the expedition and some traditional songs of the period. There is a laminated sheet that provides interesting information about each song; the sheet is a shortened, paraphrased version of the CD liner notes. The album can be used as background music, or you could listen to the album ahead of time and select a few fun songs for your group to discuss. You might even wind up dancing!

Recipes from The Food Journal of Lewis and Clark by Mary Gunderson.
Serving food is a great way to make your program fun and give it a taste of authenticity! We have included recipes to four simple dishes which the Corps of Discovery might have eaten. Culinary historian Mary Gunderson has scoured the captains' journals for food references and researched nineteenth century cooking to create these authentic recipes:

  • Jerusalem Artichokes and Squash
  • Indian Pudding
  • William Clark's Birthday Fruit Salad
  • Everyday Hominy with Bacon

Tactile Map: Lewis and Clark 's Western Exploration.
This map illustrates the expedition's route across North America, using tactile lines and symbols in conjunction with print. The legend at the right explains the tactile marks in braille and large print. Because of space constraints, the locations are labeled only in print. We suggest using the " Timeline of the Expedition " as you discuss the map.

Timeline of the Expedition.
The timeline can be used in your discussion of the tactile map. It is also a helpful resource to refer back to when questions arise during your programs.

Prints: The Expedition I: Fort Mandan 1805; The Expedition II: The Hunt; The Expedition III: The Campsite 1805 by Gary P. Miller.
These prints depict the artist's interpretation of what such scenes might have looked like. There is a description of each on the back of the card, which you may want to read aloud before passing the prints around.

12 Notecards with photography by Brent Phelps.
Each card shows a modern photograph of a significant expedition site, along with the name of the landmark and the absolute geographic location.

Lewis's Packing List of Indian Presents.
Twenty copies of this list have been provided so it can be used as a handout. Skim over the items and read aloud any you find amusing or interesting. There are questions for discussion at the bottom.

3 Sample Journal Pages.
We purchased digital images of pages from the original Lewis and Clark journals, to give an idea of what their raw journals and sketches actually looked like. We used modern technology to increase the contrast of the writing, because some was quite faded with age, and some pages have been enlarged, especially the canoe drawings. Notice the captains' irregular spelling and the way they made use of the entire page to keep the papers from becoming too bulky. The pages show:

  • a rough map or "Draught" of the Great Falls of the Missouri, where they spent a grueling month portaging all their gear and making new canoes
  • 3 sketches of Native American canoes, with descriptions
  • a drawing of the eulachon fish, with a scientific description

Air Fresheners of Prairie Grasslands and Wilderness Trail Scents.
These sachets were chosen to engage the sense of smell. They were made in North Dakota. The aromas represent hypothetical guesses as to what the woodsy wilderness and the grassland plains might have smelled like to the Corps of Discovery. Keep in mind that two hundred years ago, there were no factories, pesticides, or large scale farms in the Midwest; it was all wild, virgin nature.

Fun Factoids.
These are interesting facts to mention if you have extra time somewhere in your program, for example while the participants are passing around the tactile objects, or while serving and eating the food.

Tactile Items.
A wide variety of objects have been chosen to illustrate aspects of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. They are intended to be passed around, handled, and discussed. Suggestion: hold each item up and ask your participants what it is and what it was used for; pass the object around so everyone can feel it; meanwhile, look at the description in this guide and read aloud anything your group does not volunteer. Objects include:

  • Model Dugout Canoe. This is a miniature replica of a dugout canoe similar to the ones the Corps of Discovery used after sending the keelboat back to Saint Louis. The real dugouts were usually made of cottonwood and had bark on the outside. On their way west, the explorers used sharp tools to hollow out the tree trunk. But after crossing the mountains, the Nez Perce taught Captain Clark a new method of canoe-making: using a line of slow burning fire to hollow out the trunk. It was fortunate knowledge, because the fire technique required fewer men and the majority of the crew was ill at that point, including Captain Lewis.
  • Stuffed Prairie Dog "Chubs". In late summer in South Dakota, the Corps of Discovery encountered an animal they had never seen before: prairie dogs. The captains were so enthralled by the creatures' antics, they spent nearly a day capturing some live specimens to send to President Jefferson. Unfortunately, all but one "little burrowing dog," as Jefferson called him, died before reaching Washington. There is an original song on the Most Perfect Harmony CD about prairie dogs; the song is called "The Extra-Ordinary Beast" and is track 10.
  • Stuffed Bison. Buffalo-hump was a favorite food of the Corps of Discovery. At the time of the expedition, enormous herds of bison roamed the fertile plains. The buffalo were central to the Native American tribes' survival; they put every part of the buffalo carcass to practical use, wasting nothing. The Corps of Discovery was not so careful; their primary mission was to cross the continent, so they could not take time to dry the hide or clean the bones for tool-making.
  • Expedition Sand with Buffalo-Hide Top. On August 23, 1804, Lewis and Clark camped along the Missouri River near Elk Point, South Dakota. In that night's journal entry, Clark mentioned how the wind whipped up sand from a bar, making it very hard to see or eat. The jar contains sand taken near that campsite. The top is covered with real buffalo hide, which is the main reason the item was selected. Pass the jar around so everyone can feel and smell the buffalo hide.
  • Fifteen-Star American Flag. At the time of the expedition, there were fifteen stars on the flag, representing the fifteen United States. Meriwether Lewis packed a stock of flags and gave them to native chiefs at the beginning of councils. The symbolic gifts augmented the United States ' claim of sovereignty over the natives.
  • Peace Medal. While Lewis was preparing for the expedition, Jefferson had special medallions he called Peace Medals created for the occasion. The peace medals began a subsequent series of round medals bearing the image of the President on the obverse and a symbol of peace on the reverse. The original medals were made from two die struck pieces of silver, fastened together with a collar and pierced or fitted with rings for suspension.
  • Mirror. This item was included because Lewis brought mirrors to give to chiefs and to use in bartering. The natives had never seen mirrors before, so they were fascinated by their reflections, which they had previously only seen in water.